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Children are shorter and weigh less than adults. Females are 98% of their adult height by the age of 16 or 17 and males by the age of 17 to 18. The heart rates in children decline as they age. During the toddler period, (1-3 yrs) it is 80 to 100 beats per minute, and by the time they are adolescents (12-20 yrs), it decreases to 50-100 b.p.m. Respiration (breathing) and blood pressure also decrease as children grow older, and children do not attain 20/20 vision until the age of seven. It is essential to remember however, that children of the same chronological age cannot be compared, as some children bloom earlier than others.
By the age of 6-12 yrs, children have greater strength, physical ability and coordination. Their balance and rhythm are also refined. By the age of 12, males have greater strength, endurance and agility, while females have greater flexibility and gracious movement. Children have lower oxygen consumption compared to adults. They have a great amount of local fatigue of muscle, a limited attention span and a low threshold for discomfort.
Children have lower anaerobic capacities than adults including the following:
The total amount of energy available to perform work in the absence of oxygen is referred to as the anaerobic capacity of the body.
Capacity to Buffer Acidosis During Exercise
Acidosis is a term applied to the lowered alkali reserve in the body which results from strenuous muscular exercise.
Children have difficulty in cooling, for they have great energy expenditure and lower sweat rates. They are at greater risk for hypothermia than adults, as the high surface area to body mass ratio can accelerate heat loss. When children are overheated, water is critical.
Strength Training for Kids
It is only in the past 15 years that strength-training has been proven a safe activity for older children (ages 7-12 yr).
Children will not bulk but experience neural adaptations and better coordination of agonist and antagonist muscle groups. Motor unit activation and lean body mass will increase with fiber type differentiation.
Children should be monitored closely, since they are physiologically immature. Performing an optimal range of motion of multi-joint exercises is critical. The primary focus is learning proper technique and breathing. Ballistic movements, such as powerlifting and bodybuilding should be avoided.
The American College of Sports Medicine recommends children weight train 20 to 30 minutes on 3 nonconsecutive days per week. They should perform one to two sets of eight to ten repetitions of eight to ten different exercises. Rest intervals should be one to two minutes. As weight training is an excellent activity for children, it is essential that they are engage in other physical activities as well.
Children are more aerobic than any other time in life. They have a higher activity of aerobic enzymes and number of Type I muscle fibers than adults. Type I or ‘slow-twitch’ muscle fibers are responsible for long-duration, low intensity activity such as jogging, cycling, or any other aerobic activity.
Between the ages of five and 20 years, the number of Type II muscle fibers increase by 50%. Type II or ‘fast-twitch’ muscle fibers (divided further into A and B) are responsible for short-duration, high intensity activity. Type IIA fibers are designed for short to moderate duration of moderate-to-high intensity work, as seen in most weight training activities. Type IIB fibers are built for explosive, very short-duration activity such as Olympic lifts.
There are two common types of exercise-related muscle soreness. Acute soreness occurs during or immediately after exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) develops 12 hours or more after exercise.
What is Acute Soreness?
Muscle soreness during and immediately after exercise usually is a result of simple fatigue, which is caused by a buildup of chemical waste products of training. When this happens, the fatigue will usually disappear after a few minutes of rest. Once this soreness subsides, you can usually continue exercising without any residual effects.
What is Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness?
When you change your training program, DOMS is common after a workout. When you are used to performing 15 repetitions, your muscles adapt to this style of training. If you suddenly switch to 8 repetitions with a heavier weight, you shock your muscles. Another way that your muscles can be shocked is if you have not done any exercise in 6 months, and you suddenly run a couple of miles. You may feel soreness all over your body the next morning. You may also notice muscle stiffness and weakness. These symptoms are a normal response to unusual exertion and are part of an adaptation process that leads to greater strength once the muscles recover. The soreness is usually the worst within the first 2 days following the activity and subsides over the next few days.
What are the causes of DOMS?
DOMS is a result of microscopic tearing of muscle fibers. The amount of tearing depends on how hard and how long you work out and what type of training you do. For example, activities in which muscles forcefully contract while they are lengthening tend to cause the most soreness. The lengthening of a muscle is called an ‘eccentric’ contraction. This occurs in activities such as descending stairs, running downhill, lowering weights, and in the downward movements of squats and push-ups.
When the muscle fiber tears, swelling may take place in and around a muscle, which can also contribute to delayed soreness. This swelling increases pressure on the surrounding tissues, resulting in greater muscle pain and stiffness. Eccentric muscle contractions tend to cause both tearing and swelling.
How to prevent DOMS:
Certain tactics may enable you to avoid delayed soreness or keep it minimal. It is important to warm up before you train and cool down completely afterwards. Stretching in between sets is also a good idea.
It’s also important to give your muscles time to adapt to your activity. For example, if you have been inactive and your goal is to run 3 miles in 45 minutes, start by simply running a mile, and then add another quarter- to half-mile at each workout until you can comfortably run 3 miles. Then you can start increasing your pace to achieve your goal.
What should I do when I’m sore?
Doing some light cardio at a moderate pace or working out other muscles that are not sore is a good way to deal with soreness. This will increase blood flow to all muscles (including the affected area) which can help to get rid of that soreness.
Other ways of helping soreness include applying ice, stretching, and massaging the affected muscles. There is research supporting the idea that vitamin C may decrease muscle soreness.
Finally, you should wait until the soreness, weakness, and stiffness is gone before vigorously exercising the affected muscle again.
Muscles work by contracting. All muscles cross over at least one joint, (sometimes two) and the action of contracting a muscle causes that joint to move. A good example is the quadricep (thigh) muscle. It originates from the front of your hip (the anterior superior iliac spine), crosses over your knee joint, and inserts (as a tendon), to your shin bone (tibia). The action of contracting your quadricep muscle moves your lower leg forward, as it straightens your knee. Muscles are the motors of your body. All of their action is due to their contraction. They can do more work if they have greater contractile strength. Contractile strength is greater when the muscles are longer. The longer the muscle, the more work it can do when acting on a joint. Stretched muscles are longer muscles. Stretching allows greater extension of a joint when moving. For example, if you are a runner and stretch prior to running, your stride will be longer. If the stride remains the same length, then the muscles involved will be doing less work. Stretching helps prevent injuries. The more flexible a person is, the less the likelihood of a torn or strained muscle. Over time, proper stretching strengthens both ligaments and tendons. Ligaments attach bone to bone, tendons attach muscles to bone. Stretching promotes faster recovery, since stretching the muscles helps to move toxins and waste products of muscular exertion out of the muscles and into the bloodstream, where they can be broken down and eliminated. Stretching relaxes your body. Relaxing your body allows you to experience less intense negative emotional states. Muscles that are tight waste energy. Stretching allows you to become aware of areas in your body that are held with undue tension, so you can release them. Stretching feels GOOD!!! Anyone, at any age, can stretch. It does not matter where your flexibility level is when you begin, as long as you work at it you will improve.
What is Cortisol? Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands (small glands adjacent to the kidneys). The most important roles of cortisol in the human body are regulating blood pressure and cardiovascular function. It also regulates the body’s use of protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The excretion of cortisol increases when physical or psychological stress is placed upon the body. How Cortisol Affects your Training High levels of cortisol can change the body from an anabolic (muscle building) to a catabolic (muscle wasting) state. In order to keep cortisol levels low, you must keep yourself in a positive mood. Try not to get stressed out over things that can be accomplished without needing to worry. Also, knowing your body well enough can also help you in the battle against high cortisol levels. Be smart when working out or working at a physically active job. Know how your body reacts to certain situations. How to Lower Your Cortisol Levels There are many different ways to lower cortisol levels, ranging from coping with stressful events better to taking medicine to fight high cortisol levels. High cortisol levels are normally present in our bodies from the stress that we place on ourselves. To lower your cortisol levels, you must lower your stress. Eating small snacks or meals throughout the day will give your body energy so that it will not have to rely on muscle tissue for energy. Your energy should come from the food that you eat and fat stores. Even though cortisol levels are not more important than diet and training, they should still be taken seriously. In the fight for muscle mass, every little thing helps. Lowering high cortisol levels will make your body less catabolic, causing your body to be in a more anabolic state.
Do 8 repetitions in each position without rest.
Use ISO-MAX or PROTO 7 protein
1-2 scoop Protein
1 tsp lecithin granules
½ tsp coconut extract
1-2 scoop Protein
½ tsp pineapple extract
1-2 scoop protein
1 pitted peach
½ cup frozen strawberries
1 scoop Protein
½ cup blueberries
1-2 scoop protein
1tsp lecithin granules
1-2 scoop protein
1 tsp vanilla extract
1-2 scoop protein
1 cup frozen strawberries
1-2 scoop protein
1 lb. mild white fish fillets such as halibut, cod or tilapia (4 oz. each) -½ tsp. freshly ground black pepper
Dipping sauce: – 2 Tbsp. lime juice -2 Tbsp. fish sauce -1 Tbsp. brown sugar -1 tsp. chili garlic sauce
1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F. Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil. Place fish on foil, skin side down. Sprinkle with pepper and gently pat into flesh.
2. Roast fish for 10-15 minutes or until fish is opaque in center and flakes easily with a fork.
3. Meanwhile, whisk dipping sauce ingredients together in a small bowl. Serve in individual bowls for dipping, or drizzle over fish on a platter.
1 tsp. olive oil -1 leek, washed and sliced into – 1/4-inch pieces -2 ears fresh sweet corn, cut off cob -1/4 tsp. garlic powder -1/4 tsp. dried dill weed 1 tsp. lemon juice
1. Heat oil in a saucepan over medium heat; add leek slices and corn kernels. Sprinkle with garlic powder and dill weed.
2. Sauté for 3-4 minutes until leeks are bright green, and corn and leeks are tender.
3. Remove from heat and top with lemon juice.
Makes Three Servings 20 oz. canned unsweetened pineapple chunks -1 Tbsp. cornstarch -1 Tbsp. curry powder -8 oz. chicken breast, sliced into thin strips -3 Tbsp. flour -2 bell peppers, cut into strips
Start: Drain pineapple chunks and save one fourth cup of the juice. Set pineapple chunks aside. Combine juice with cornstarch and curry powder in a small saucepan.
Cook: Bring curry mixture to a boil over medium heat, stirring constantly. Reduce heat and simmer 3-4 minutes or until thickened and bubbly. Set aside. Dust chicken in flour, and coat a nonstick skillet with cooking spray. Add chicken to skillet and cook four minutes per side or until lightly browned.
Serve: Add sliced peppers and sauté for two minutes. Add pineapple chunks and curry mixture to skillet. Cook over medium heat until thoroughly heated.
…blend, pour in skillet, flip, serve with Fruit if you want!